Psychometric evaluation of the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) 0–2 years with visual impairment

Ellen B.M. Elsman, Ruth M.A. van Nispen, Gerardus H.M.B. van Rens

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Purpose: To identify and monitor the developmental and participation needs of visually impaired (VI) children, the Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) has recently been developed involving end-users as stakeholders. The aim was to investigate psychometric properties of the PAI-CY for children between 0 and 2 years. Methods: Responses from 115 parents were included in item analyses, after which a combination of classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) was used. Internal consistency, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability at item and scale level were investigated. Results: After deleting four items, the PAI-CY met IRT assumptions, i.e., unidimensionality, local independence, and monotonicity, and satisfactory model fit was obtained. Participants with more severe VI and comorbidity scored significantly worse than those with less severe VI and without comorbidity, supporting known-group validity. Satisfactory internal consistency and test–retest reliability were obtained (Cronbach’s alpha 0.95, kappa 0.60–0.91, ICC 0.920). Conclusions: The PAI-CY 0–2 years has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to systematically assess and monitor developmental and participation needs of very young children with VI from parents’ perspectives in low vision practice and research. Confirmation of psychometric properties is necessary, possibly facilitating further item reduction, increased precision, and improved user-friendliness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)775-781
Number of pages7
JournalQuality of life research
Issue number3
Early online date1 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Children
  • Item response theory
  • Participation
  • Psychometrics
  • Validation
  • Visual impairment

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