Reduced Air Leakage During Non-Invasive Ventilation Using a Simple Anesthetic Mask With 3D-Printed Adaptor in an Anthropometric Based Pediatric Head–Lung Model

Renée Hovenier, Lyè Goto, Toon Huysmans, Monica van Gestel, Rozalinde Klein-Blommert, Dick Markhorst, Coen Dijkman, Reinout A. Bem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used in the support of acute respiratory failure in critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). One of the major challenges in pediatric NIV is finding an optimal fitting mask that limits air leakage, in particular for young children and those with specific facial features. Here, we describe the development of a pediatric head–lung model, based on 3D anthropometric data, to simulate pediatric NIV in a 1-year-old child, which can serve as a tool to investigate the effectiveness of NIV masks. Using this model, the primary aim of this study was to determine the extent of air leakage during NIV with our recently described simple anesthetic mask with a 3D-printed quick-release adaptor, as compared with a commercially available pediatric NIV mask. The simple anesthetic mask provided a better seal resulting in lower air leakage at various positive pressure levels as compared with the commercial mask. These data further support the use of the simple anesthetic mask as a reasonable alternative during pediatric NIV in the acute setting. Moreover, the pediatric head–lung model provides a promising tool to study the applicability and effectiveness of customized pediatric NIV masks in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Article number873426
JournalFrontiers in pediatrics
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2022


  • 3D-printed
  • acute respiratory failure
  • anthropometry
  • children
  • interface
  • non-invasive ventilation

Cite this