Reduced Chance of Hearing Loss Associated with Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Aminoglycosides in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

R van Altena, J A Dijkstra, M E van der Meer, J F Borjas Howard, J G W Kosterink, D van Soolingen, T S van der Werf, J W C Alffenaar

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Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our tuberculosis center, we used therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting preset pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to maintain efficacy while preventing (oto)toxicity. To evaluate this strategy, we retrospectively evaluated medical charts of tuberculosis (TB) patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin in the period from 2000 to 2012. Patients with culture-confirmed multiresistant or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) receiving amikacin or kanamycin as part of their TB treatment for at least 3 days were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Clinical data, including maximum concentration (Cmax), Cmin, and audiometry data, were extracted from the patients' medical charts. A total of 80 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean weighted Cmax/MIC ratios obtained from 57 patients were 31.2 for amikacin and 12.3 for kanamycin. The extent of hearing loss was limited and correlated with the cumulative drug dose per kg of body weight during daily administration. At follow-up, 35 (67.3%) of all patients had successful outcome; there were no relapses. At a median dose of 6.5 mg/kg, a correlation was found between the dose per kg of body weight during daily dosing and the extent of hearing loss in dB at 8,000 Hz. These findings suggest that the efficacy at this lower dosage is maintained with limited toxicity. A randomized controlled trial should provide final proof of the safety and efficacy of TDM-guided use of aminoglycosides in MDR-TB treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017


  • Adult
  • Amikacin/adverse effects
  • Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects
  • Area Under Curve
  • Audiometry
  • Biological Availability
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Dosage Calculations
  • Drug Monitoring
  • Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/blood
  • Female
  • Hearing Loss/chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Kanamycin/adverse effects
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
  • Retrospective Studies

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