Reliability and Validity of Assessing User Satisfaction With Web-Based Health Interventions

Leif Boß, Dirk Lehr, Dorota Reis, Christiaan Vis, Heleen Riper, Matthias Berking, David Daniel Ebert

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BACKGROUND: The perspective of users should be taken into account in the evaluation of Web-based health interventions. Assessing the users' satisfaction with the intervention they receive could enhance the evidence for the intervention effects. Thus, there is a need for valid and reliable measures to assess satisfaction with Web-based health interventions.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity of the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire adapted to Internet-based interventions (CSQ-I).

METHODS: The psychometric quality of the CSQ-I was analyzed in user samples from 2 separate randomized controlled trials evaluating Web-based health interventions, one from a depression prevention intervention (sample 1, N=174) and the other from a stress management intervention (sample 2, N=111). At first, the underlying measurement model of the CSQ-I was analyzed to determine the internal consistency. The factorial structure of the scale and the measurement invariance across groups were tested by multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally, the construct validity of the scale was examined by comparing satisfaction scores with the primary clinical outcome.

RESULTS: Multigroup confirmatory analyses on the scale yielded a one-factorial structure with a good fit (root-mean-square error of approximation =.09, comparative fit index =.96, standardized root-mean-square residual =.05) that showed partial strong invariance across the 2 samples. The scale showed very good reliability, indicated by McDonald omegas of .95 in sample 1 and .93 in sample 2. Significant correlations with change in depressive symptoms (r=-.35, P<.001) and perceived stress (r=-.48, P<.001) demonstrated the construct validity of the scale.

CONCLUSIONS: The proven internal consistency, factorial structure, and construct validity of the CSQ-I indicate a good overall psychometric quality of the measure to assess the user's general satisfaction with Web-based interventions for depression and stress management. Multigroup analyses indicate its robustness across different samples. Thus, the CSQ-I seems to be a suitable measure to consider the user's perspective in the overall evaluation of Web-based health interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e234
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2016


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