Retinoic acid signaling in heart development: Application in the differentiation of cardiovascular lineages from human pluripotent stem cells

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Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays an important role during heart development in establishing anteroposterior polarity, formation of inflow and outflow tract progenitors, and growth of the ventricular compact wall. RA is also utilized as a key ingredient in protocols designed for generating cardiac cell types from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). This review discusses the role of RA in cardiogenesis, currently available protocols that employ RA for differentiation of various cardiovascular lineages, and plausible transcriptional mechanisms underlying this fate specification. These insights will inform further development of desired cardiac cell types from human PSCs and their application in preclinical and clinical research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2589-2606
Number of pages18
JournalStem Cell Reports
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 9 Nov 2021

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