Root Cause Analysis Using the Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis Method in Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Literature Review

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OBJECTIVES: Unintended events (UEs) are prevalent in healthcare facilities, and learning from them is key to improve patient safety. The Prevention and Recovery Information System for Monitoring and Analysis (PRISMA)-method is a root cause analysis method used in healthcare facilities. The aims of this systematic review are to map the use of the PRISMA-method in healthcare facilities worldwide, to assess the insights that the PRISMA-method offers, and to propose recommendations to increase its usability in healthcare facilities. METHODS: PubMed,, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were systematically searched from inception to February 26, 2020. Studies were included if the PRISMA-method for analyzing UEs was applied in healthcare facilities. A quality appraisal was performed, and relevant data based on an appraisal checklist were extracted. RESULTS: The search provided 2773 references, of which 25 articles reporting 10,816 UEs met our inclusion criteria. The most frequently identified root causes were human-related, followed by organizational factors. Most studies took place in the Netherlands (n = 20), and the sample size ranged from 1 to 2028 UEs. The study setting and collected data used for PRISMA varied widely. The PRISMA-method performed by multiple persons resulted in more root causes per event. CONCLUSIONS: To better understand UEs in healthcare facilities and formulate optimal countermeasures, our recommendations to further improve the PRISMA-method mainly focus on combining information from patient files and reports with interviews, including multiple PRISMA-trained researchers in an analysis, and modify the Eindhoven Classification Model if needed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-350
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Patient Safety
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

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