Background: It is unclear which patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are most susceptible for omicron breakthrough infections. Methods: We assessed omicron breakthrough infections in vaccinated patients with MS with and without disease-modifying therapies enrolled in an ongoing large prospective study. We longitudinally studied humoral responses after primary and booster vaccinations and breakthrough infections. Results: Omicron breakthrough infections were reported in 110/312 (36%) patients with MS, and in 105/110 (96%) infections were mild. Omicron breakthrough infections occurred more frequently in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapies and sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators, patients with impaired humoral responses after primary immunisation (regardless of treatment) and patients without prior SARS-CoV-2 infections. After infection, antibody titres increased in patients on S1PR modulator treatment while anti-CD20 treated patients did not show an increase. Conclusions: SARS-COV-2 omicron breakthrough infections are more prevalent in patients with MS on anti-CD20 therapies and S1PR modulators compared with other patients with MS, which correlated with decreased humoral responses after vaccination. Humoral responses after infection were higher in S1PR modulator-treated patients in comparison to patients on anti-CD20 therapies, suggesting that immunological protection from contracting infection or repeated exposures may differ between these therapies.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberjnnp-2022-330100
Pages (from-to)280-283
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
Issue number4
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • COVID-19

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