Context: Higher PTH concentrations have been associated with fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but data in the general population are scarce. Objective: We investigated whether higher PTH concentrations are prospectively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. Design, Setting, Participants: This study used data from the Hoorn Study, a prospective population-based cohort with baseline measurements between 2000 and 2001. We included 633 participants, mean age 70.1 ± 6.6 years, 51% female. Serum intact PTH was measured using a 2-site immunoassay. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality based on clinical files and coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision. We used Kaplan-Meier plots to estimate survival curves and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) using season-specific PTH quartiles. Results: During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 112 participants died, of which 26 deaths (23%) were cardiovascular. Survival curves by PTH quartiles differed for all-cause mortality (log-rank P = .054) and CVD mortality (log-rank P = .022). In a multivariate model, the highest PTH quartile was associated with all-cause mortality; HR = 1.98 (1.08, 3.64). Kidney function slightly attenuated the PTH risk association, but risk persisted; HR = 1.93 (1.04, 3.58). The results for CVD mortality showed a similar pattern, although the association was significant only in a threshold model (quartile 4 vs quartile 1-3); HR = 2.56 (1.11, 5.94). Conclusions: Among a general older population, higher PTH concentrations were associated with higher all-cause mortality risk, mostly explained by fatal CVD events. We suggest to evaluate whether individuals with high PTH concentrations benefit from therapeutic approaches targeted to decrease PTH concentrations. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.