Should Virtual Mirroring Be Used in the Preoperative Planning of an Orbital Reconstruction?

Jesper Jansen, Leander Dubois, Ruud Schreurs, Peter J. J. Gooris, Thomas J. J. Maal, Ludo F. Beenen, Alfred G. Becking

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29 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose Mirroring has been used as a diagnostic tool in orbital wall fractures for many years, but limited research is available proving the assumed symmetry of orbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate volume and contour differences between orbital cavities in healthy humans. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the left and right orbital cavities of a consecutive sample of patients’ computed tomograms were measured. Inclusion criteria were patients with no sign of orbital or sinus pathology or fracture. Outcome variables were differences in volume and contour. Descriptive statistics and Student paired t test were used for data analysis of orbital volume and distance maps were used for analysis of orbital contour. Results The sample was composed of 100 patients with a mean age of 57; 50% were men. The total mean orbital volume was 27.53 ± 3.11 mL. Mean difference between cavities was 0.44 ± 0.31 mL or 1.59% (standard deviation [SD], 1.10%). The orbital contour showed high similarity, with an absolute mean left-versus-right difference of 0.82 mm (SD, 0.23 mm). Conclusion The authors hypothesize that the measured differences between right and left orbital volumes and contours are clinically minor. In consequence, the use of mirroring tools as part of preoperative planning in orbital reconstruction is legitimate with the aim of simulating the pre-traumatized anatomy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-387
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number2
Early online date2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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