In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited resources, suboptimal risk stratification, and disproportionate patient-to-infrastructure ratio result in low survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A high incidence of relapse, inherent to the biology, renders management arduous. The challenge of treating AML in LMICs is of balancing the intensity of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, which appears necessary for cure, with available supportive care, which influences treatment-related mortality. The recommendations outlined in this paper are based on published evidence and expert opinion. The principle of this adapted protocol is to tailor treatment to available resources, reduce preventable toxic death, and direct limited resources toward those children who are most likely to be cured.
- acute myelogenous leukemia
- acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia
- developing country
- low and middle income