Objective: Social jet lag, i.e., the discordance among social and biological rhythms, is associated with poor metabolic control. This study aimed to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among social jet lag and glycemic and metabolic control in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a prospective cohort (N = 990) with type 2 diabetes, social jet lag was measured at baseline using daily diaries and was categorized (high, moderate, or low). Metabolic outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 1 and 2 years of follow-up. Associations among social jet lag and glycemic and metabolic control were analyzed using linear regression and linear mixed models adjusted for confounding factors. Analyses were stratified for work status (retired vs. working; p value for interaction = 0.007 for glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c]). Results: In working people, a cross-sectional association between high social jet lag and HbA1c (1.87 mmol/mol [95% CI: 0.75 to 2.99]) and blood pressure (5.81 mm Hg [95% CI: 4.04 to 7.59]) was observed. For retired people, high social jet lag was negatively associated with HbA1c (−1.58 mmol/mol [95% CI: −2.54 to −0.62]), glucose (−0.19 mmoL/L [95% CI:−0.36 to −0.01]), and blood pressure (−3.70 mm Hg [95% CI: −5.36 to −2.04]), and the association with BMI was positive (1.12 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.74 to 1.51]). Prospective associations had the same direction as cross-sectional findings but were nonsignificant for working or retired people. Conclusions: Social jet lag was cross-sectionally, but not prospectively, associated with glycemic and metabolic markers. Interaction with work status was present, and directions of the associations were generally detrimental in the working population, whereas higher social jet lag was associated with improved glycemic and metabolic control for retired people.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)945-954
Number of pages10
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023

Cite this