Social support and care arrangements of older people living alone in rural Malaysia

N. Evans, P. Allotey, J.D. Imelda, D.D. Reidpath, R. Pool

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Malaysia has an ageing population and an increasing number of older people who live alone. This study explores the social support and care arrangements of older people living alone in rural Malaysia. The study took a qualitative approach: semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of Malay (N = 20) and Chinese (N = 20) Malaysians aged over 65. Five cross-cutting themes were identified through a thematic analysis: degrees of aloneness; relationships and social support; barriers to social support; and future illness, care and death. All participants said they lived alone; living arrangements, however, were often complex. For Malays, most support came from nearby adult children and relatives, whereas Chinese participants, who less frequently had adult children living locally, emphasised support from friends and neighbours. Emigrant adult children's assistance was mostly informational and financial, instrumental assistance was either substituted for money, or provided solely during periods of ill-health. Physical decline, limited telephone use, inadequate transportation and fears of crime were barriers to social support. Participants avoided thinking or talking about future care needs. These findings have implications for Malaysian old age policy, which is currently focused on supporting families to care for older relatives. Child migration and a growing preference for a period of independent living in old age may require policies and resources directed at older people as individuals to support their own efforts to remain independent, active and age ‘in place’.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2061-2081
Number of pages21
JournalAgeing and Society
Issue number10
Early online date9 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018


  • South-East Asia
  • inter-generational support
  • migration
  • population ageing
  • social capital
  • social support

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