Statins for children with familial hypercholesterolemia

Alpo Vuorio, Jaana Kuoppala, Petri T. Kovanen, Steve E. Humphries, Serena Tonstad, Albert Wiegman, Euridiki Drogari

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common inherited metabolic diseases; the average worldwide prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is at least 1 in 500. Diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in children is based on highly elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level or DNA-based analysis, or both. Coronary atherosclerosis has been detected in men with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as young as 17 years old and in women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia at 25 years old. Since the clinical complications of atherosclerosis occur prematurely, especially in men, lifelong hypolipidemic measures, started in childhood, are needed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In children with familial hypercholesterolemia, diet is as yet the cornerstone of treatment. Anion exchange resins, such as cholestyramine and colestipol, have also been found to be effective, but are poorly tolerated. Since the 1990s statin studies have been carried out among children with familial hypercholesterolemia (aged 7 to 17 years). Statins greatly reduced their serum LDL cholesterol levels. Even though statins seem to be safe and well-tolerated in children, their long-term safety in this age group is not firmly established. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of statins in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Search methods Relevant studies were identified from the Group's Inborn Errors and Metabolism Trials Register and Medline. Date of most recent search: 14 October 2013. Selection criteria Randomized and controlled clinical studies including participants up to 18 years old, comparing a statin to placebo or to diet alone. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Main results We found 21 potentially eligible studies, of which we included eight randomized placebo-controlled studies (1074 participants). In general, the intervention and follow-up time was short (median 24 weeks; range from six weeks to two years). Statins reduced the mean LDL cholesterol concentration at all time points. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as creatinine kinase concentrations, did not differ between treated and placebo groups at any time point. The risks of myopathy and clinical adverse events were very low and also similar in both groups. In one study simvastatin was shown to improve flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, and in another study treatment with pravastatin for two years induced a significant regression in carotid intima media thickness. Authors' conclusions Statin treatment is an efficient lipid-lowering therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. No significant safety issues were identified. Statin treatment seems to be safe in the short term, but long-term safety is unknown. Children treated with statins should be carefully monitored and followed up by their pediatricians or physicians into adulthood. Large long-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the long-term safety issues of statins
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)CD006401
JournalCochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
Volume2014
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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