Secondary lymphoid organs are critical for efficient interaction between innate antigen presenting cells and adaptive lymphocytes in order to start adaptive immune responses. The efficiency by which these cellular subsets meet is highly increased by the orchestrating role of stromal cells within the secondary lymphoid organs. These cells provide cytokines, chemokines and cell surface receptors necessary for survival and guided migration. This increases the likelihood that antigen specific adaptive immune responses occur. Already from initial formation of secondary lymphoid organs, the interaction of immune cells with stromal cells is crucial and this interaction continues during immune activation. With the recent discovery of many stromal cell subsets new immune micro-niches with specific functions that are orchestrated by stromal cells will be discovered. Here, we will discuss how the development of lymph nodes as well as their specific niches is guided by the interaction of immune cells and stromal cells.