Surgical management of esophageal sarcoma: A multicenter European experience

D. Mege, L. Depypere, G. Piessen, A. E. Slaman, B. P. L. Wijnhoven, A. Hölscher, M. Nilsson, M. I. van Berge Henegouwen, J. J. B. van Lanschot, W. Schroeder, P. A. Thomas, P. Nafteux, Xavier Benoit D'Journo

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Abstract

Esophageal sarcomas are rare and evidence in literature is scarce making their management difficult. The objective is to report surgical and oncological outcomes of esophageal sarcoma in a large multicenter European cohort. This is a retrospective multicenter study including all patients who underwent en-bloc esophagectomy for esophageal sarcoma in seven European tertiary referral centers between 1987 and 2016. The main outcomes and measures are pathological results, early and long-term outcomes. Among 10,936 esophageal resections for cancer, 21 (0.2%) patients with esophageal sarcoma were identified. The majority of tumors was located in the middle (n=7) and distal (n = 9) third of the esophagus. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in five patients. All the patients underwent en-bloc transthoracic esophagectomy (19 open, 2 minimally invasive). Postoperative mortality occurred in 1 patient (5%). One patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Definitive pathological results were carcinosarcoma (n = 7), leiomyosarcoma (n = 5), and other types of sarcoma (n = 9). Microscopic R1 resection was present in one patient (5%) and seven patients (33%) had positive lymph nodes. Median follow-up was 16 (3-79) months in 20 of 21 patients (95%). One-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 74%, 43%, and 35%, respectively. One-, 3- and 5-years disease-free survival rates were 58%, 40%, and 33%, respectively. Median overall survival was 6 months in N+ patients vs. 37 months for N0 patients (p = 0.06). At the end of the follow-up period, nine patients had died from cancer recurrences (43%), three patients died from other reasons (14%), one patient was still alive with recurrence (5%) and the seven remaining patients were free of disease (33%). Recurrence was local (n = 3), metastatic (n = 3), or both (n = 4). In conclusion, carcinosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma were the most common esophageal sarcoma histological subtypes. Lymph node involvement was seen in one third of cases. A transthoracic en-bloc esophagectomy with radical lymphadenectomy should be the best surgical option to achieve complete resection. Long-term survival remained poor with a high local and distant recurrence rate.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberdox146
JournalDiseases of the esophagus
Volume31
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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