Surgical Outcomes of Neoscrotal Augmentation with Testicular Prostheses in Transgender Men

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Introduction: Testicular prosthesis implantation may be used for neoscrotal augmentation in transgender men. Aim: Assess the clinical outcomes and risk factors for postoperative complications of this procedure in transgender men. Methods: All transgender men who underwent neoscrotal augmentation with testicular implants between January 1992 and December 2018 were retrospectively identified. A retrospective chart study was performed that recorded surgical characteristics and postoperative complications. Risk factors on complications were identified using uni- and multivariate analyses. Main Outcome Measure: Surgical outcomes included explantation due to infection, extrusion, discomfort, or leakage. Results: We identified 206 patients, and the following prostheses were placed: Dow Corning (n = 22), Eurosilicone (n = 2), Nagor (n = 205), Polytech (n = 10), Promedon (n = 105), Prometel (n = 22), Sebbin (n = 44), and unknown (n = 2). The mean clinical follow-up time was 11.5 ± 8.3 years. In 43 patients (20.8%), one or both prostheses were explanted due to infection, extrusion, discomfort, prosthesis leakage, or urethral problems. Currently, scrotoplasty according to Hoebeke is the most frequently performed technique. Our review found that for this technique explantation occurred in 6 of 52 patients (11.5%). A history of smoking was a risk factor for postoperative infections and prosthesis explantation. In earlier years, larger prostheses were immediately placed at scrotal reconstruction; however, a trend can be seen toward smaller and lighter testicular prostheses and delayed implantation. Clinical Implications: Patients wanting to undergo this procedure can be adequately informed on postoperative outcomes. Strengths & Limitations: Strengths of this study include the number of patients, long clinical follow-up time, and completeness of data. Weaknesses of this study include its retrospective nature and the high variability of prostheses and surgical techniques used. Conclusion: Over the years, scrotoplasty techniques and testicular prostheses preferences have changed. Explantation rates have dropped over the last decade. Pigot GLS, Al-Tamimi M, Ronkes B, et al. Surgical Outcomes of Neoscrotal Augmentation with Testicular Prostheses in Transgender Men. J Sex Med 2019;16:1664–1671.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1664-1671
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • Clinical Outcomes
  • Gender Dysphoria
  • Metaidoioplasty
  • Metoidioplasty
  • Phalloplasty
  • Scrotoplasty
  • Testicular Prostheses
  • Transgender

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