Systematic review of embolization of type I endoleaks using liquid embolic agents

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The long-term success of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is limited by complications, most importantly endoleaks. In case of (persistent) type I endoleak (T1EL), secondary intervention is indicated to prevent secondary aneurysm rupture. Different treatment options are suggested for T1ELs, such as endo anchors, (fenestrated) cuffs, embolization, or open conversion. Currently, the treatment of T1EL with liquid embolic agents is available; however, results are not yet addressed. This review presents the safety and efficacy of embolization with liquid embolic agents for treatment of T1ELs after EVAR. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed for all studies reporting the use of liquid embolic agents as monotherapy for treatment of T1ELs after EVAR. Patient numbers, technical success (successful delivery of liquid embolics in the T1EL) and clinical success (absence of aneurysm related death, endoleak recurrence or additional interventions during follow-up) were examined. Results: Of 1604 articles, 10 studies met the selection criteria, including 194 patients treated with liquid embolics; 73.2% of the patients were male with a median age of 71 years. The overall technical success was 97.9%. Clinical success was 87.6%. Because the median follow-up was only 13.0 months (range, 1-89 months), data on long-term success are almost absent. Four cases (2.1%) of secondary aneurysm rupture after embolization owing to endoleak recurrence were reported. All ruptures occurred in aneurysms exceeding initial treatment diameter of 70 mm. Conclusions: Initial technical success after liquid embolization for T1EL is high, although long-term clinical success rates are lacking. Within this review, the risk of secondary rupture is comparable with untreated T1EL at 2% with a median follow-up of 13 months, regardless of the initial success of embolization. In general, no decrease in secondary aneurysm rupture after embolization of T1EL after EVAR is demonstrated, although the results of late embolization are debated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1024-1032
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of vascular surgery
Issue number3
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Endovascular aneurysm repair
  • Liquid embolization
  • Type I endoleak

Cite this