Terminology for osteochondral lesions of the ankle: proceedings of the International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle

Christopher D. Murawski, M. Shazil Jamal, Eoghan T. Hurley, Roberto Buda, Kenneth Hunt, Graham McCollum, Jochen Paul, Francesca Vannini, Markus Walther, Youichi Yasui, Zakariya Ali, J. Nienke Altink, Jorge Batista, Steve Bayer, Gregory C. Berlet, James D. F. Calder, Jari Dahmen, Martin S. Davey, Pieter D'Hooghe, Christopher W. DiGiovanniRichard D. Ferkel, Arianna L. Gianakos, Eric Giza, Mark Glazebrook, Laszlo Hangody, Daniel Haverkamp, Beat Hintermann, Yinghui Hua, Daire J. Hurley, J. n Karlsson, Stephen Kearns, John G. Kennedy, Gino M. M. J. Kerkhoffs, Kaj Lambers, Jin Woo Lee, Nathaniel P. Mercer, Conor Mulvin, James A. Nunley, Christopher Pearce, Helder Pereira, Marcelo Prado, Steven M. Raikin, Ian Savage-Elliott, Lew C. Schon, Yoshiharu Shimozono, James W. Stone, Sjoerd A. S. Stufkens, Martin Sullivan, Masato Takao, Hajo Thermann, David Thordarson, James Toale, Victor Valderrabano, Christiaan J. A. van Bergen, C. Niek van Dijk, Raymond J. Walls, Alastair S. Younger, MaCalus V. Hogan

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Background: The evidence supporting best practice guidelines in the field of cartilage repair of the ankle is based on both low quality and low levels of evidence. Therefore, an international consensus group of experts was convened to collaboratively advance toward consensus opinions based on the best available evidence on key topics within cartilage repair of the ankle. The purpose of this article is to report the consensus statements on “terminology for osteochondral lesions of the ankle” developed at the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle. Methods: Forty-three international experts in cartilage repair of the ankle representing 20 countries were convened and participated in a process based on the Delphi method of achieving consensus. Questions and statements were drafted within four working groups focusing on specific topics within cartilage repair of the ankle, after which a comprehensive literature review was performed, and the available evidence for each statement was graded. Discussion and debate occurred in cases where statements were not agreed on in unanimous fashion within the working groups. A final vote was then held, and the strength of consensus was characterised as follows: consensus, 51%–74%; strong consensus, 75%–99%; unanimous, 100%. Results: A total of 11 statements on terminology and classification reached consensus during the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle. Definitions are provided for osseous, chondral and osteochondral lesions, as well as bone marrow stimulation and injury chronicity, among others. An osteochondral lesion of the talus can be abbreviated as OLT. Conclusions: This international consensus derived from leaders in the field will assist clinicians with the appropriate terminology for osteochondral lesions of the ankle.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-66
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of ISAKOS
Issue number2
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • Ankle
  • Cartilage
  • Osteochondral lesion
  • Talus

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