The Complexity of the Post-Burn Immune Response: An Overview of the Associated Local and Systemic Complications

H. Ibrahim Korkmaz, Gwendolien Flokstra, Maaike Waasdorp, Anouk Pijpe, Stephan G. Papendorp, Evelien de Jong, Thomas Rustemeyer, Susan Gibbs, Paul P. M. van Zuijlen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Burn injury induces a complex inflammatory response, both locally and systemically, and is not yet completely unravelled and understood. In order to enable the development of accurate treatment options, it is of paramount importance to fully understand post-burn immunology. Research in the last decades describes insights into the prolonged and excessive inflammatory response that could exist after both severe and milder burn trauma and that this response differs from that of none-burn acute trauma. Persistent activity of complement, acute phase proteins and pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, changes in lymphocyte activity, activation of the stress response and infiltration of immune cells have all been related to post-burn local and systemic pathology. This “narrative” review explores the current state of knowledge, focusing on both the local and systemic immunology post-burn, and further questions how it is linked to the clinical outcome. Moreover, it illustrates the complexity of post-burn immunology and the existing gaps in knowledge on underlying mechanisms of burn pathology.
Original languageEnglish
Article number345
Pages (from-to)345
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • burn
  • complexity
  • immune response
  • inflammation

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