The Emergence and Global Spread of Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

Vardit Ravitsky, Marie-Christine Roy, Hazar Haidar, Lidewij Henneman, John Marshall, Ainsley J Newson, Olivia M Y Ngan, Tamar Nov-Klaiman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


Since its introduction in 2011, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has spread rapidly around the world. It carries numerous benefits but also raises challenges, often related to sociocultural, legal, and economic contexts. This article describes the implementation of NIPT in nine countries, each with its own unique characteristics: Australia, Canada, China and Hong Kong, India, Israel, Lebanon, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Themes covered for each country include the structure of the healthcare system, how NIPT is offered, counseling needs and resources, and cultural and legal context regarding disability and pregnancytermination. Some common issues emerge, including cost as a barrier to equitable access, the complexity of decision-making about public funding, and a shortage of appropriate resources that promote informed choice. Conversely, sociocultural values that underlie the use of NIPT vary greatly among countries. The issues described will become even more challenging as NIPT evolves from a second-tier to a first-tier screening test with expanded use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-338
Number of pages30
JournalAnnual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
Early online date13 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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