The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment (PACT) Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset. Method: Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA. Results: Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (Δ∗CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (Δ∗CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (Δ∗CFI < 0.01). Conclusions: Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)787-799
Number of pages13
JournalPsychological Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


  • Culture
  • Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
  • education
  • postpartum depression
  • race

Cite this