Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system that can be considered a network disorder. In MS, lesional pathology continuously disconnects structural pathways in the brain, forming a disconnection syndrome. Complex functional network changes then occur that are poorly understood but closely follow clinical status. Studying these structural and functional network changes has been and remains crucial to further decipher complex symptoms like cognitive impairment and physical disability. Recent insights especially implicate the importance of monitoring network hubs in MS, like the thalamus and default-mode network which seem especially hit hard. Such network insights in MS have led to the hypothesis that as the network continues to become disconnected and dysfunctional, exceeding a certain threshold of network efficiency loss leads to a “network collapse”. After this collapse, crucial network hubs become rigid and overloaded, and at the same time a faster neurodegeneration and accelerated clinical (and cognitive) progression can be seen. As network neuroscience has evolved, the MS field can now move towards a clearer classification of the network collapse itself and specific milestone events leading up to it. Such an updated network-focused conceptual framework of MS could directly impact clinical decision making as well as the design of network-tailored rehabilitation strategies. This review therefore provides an overview of recent network concepts that have enhanced our understanding of clinical progression in MS, especially focusing on cognition, as well as new concepts that will likely move the field forward in the near future.
- Multiple sclerosis