Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by cells have a role in intercellular communication to regulate a wide range of biological processes. Two types of EVs can be recognized. Exosomes, which are released from multi-vesicular bodies upon fusion with the plasma membrane, and ectosomes, which directly bud from the plasma membrane. How cells regulate the quantity of EV release is largely unknown. One of the initiating events in vesicle biogenesis is the regulated transport of phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytosolic leaflet of biological membranes. This process is catalyzed by P4-ATPases. The role of these phospholipid transporters in intracellular vesicle transport has been established in lower eukary-otes and is slowly emerging in mammalian cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), deficiency of the P4-ATPase member TAT-5 resulted in enhanced EV shedding, indicating a role in the regulation of EV release. In this study, we investigated whether the mammalian ortholog of TAT-5, ATP9A, has a similar function in mammalian cells. We show that knockdown of ATP9A expression in human hepatoma cells resulted in a significant increase in EV release that was independent of caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological blocking of exosome release in ATP9A knockdown cells did significantly reduce the total number of EVs. Our data support a role for ATP9A in the regulation of exosome release from human cells.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0213069
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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