The Risk of Bias and Sample Size of Trials of Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Low Back and Neck Pain: Analysis and Recommendations: analysis and recommendations

S.M. Rubinstein, R. van Eekelen, T. Oosterhuis, M.R. de Boer, R.W.J.G. Ostelo, M.W. van Tulder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in methodological quality and sample size in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for neck and low back pain over a specified period. A secondary purpose was to make recommendations for improvement for future SMT trials based upon our findings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-541
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • Bias
  • Humans
  • Low Back Pain/therapy
  • Manipulation, Spinal/statistics & numerical data
  • Neck Pain/therapy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards
  • Risk
  • Sample Size

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