Research question: What is the risk of hypogonadism in men with obstructive azoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) or Klinefelter syndrome after testicular sperm extraction (TESE)? Design: This prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out between 2007 and 2015. Results: Around 36% of men with Klinefelter syndrome, 4% of men with obstructive azoospermia and 3% of men with NOA needed testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Klinefelter syndrome was strongly associated with TRT while no association was found between obstructive azoospermia or NOA and TRT. Irrespective of the pre-operative diagnosis, a higher testosterone concentration before TESE was associated with a lower chance of needing TRT. Conclusions: Men with obstructive azoospermia or NOA have a similar moderate risk of clinical hypogonadism after TESE, while this risk is much larger for men with Klinefelter syndrome. The risk of clinical hypogonadism is lower when testosterone concentrations are high before TESE.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)973-981
Number of pages9
JournalReproductive BioMedicine Online
Issue number6
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Hypogonadism
  • Klinefelter syndrome
  • Non-obstructive azoospermia
  • Obstructive azoospermia
  • Testicular sperm extraction
  • Testosterone

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