This study evaluates the clinical, radiological, histological, and histomorphometric aspects of a fully synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) (60% hydroxyapatite and 40% ß-tricalcium phosphate), used in a human maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) procedure with 9- and 12-month healing time.Methods
A unilateral MSFE procedure, using 100% BCP, was performed in two series of five patients with healing times of 9 and 12 months respectively. Clinical and radiological parameters were measured up to 5 years postoperatively. Biopsy retrieval was carried out during dental implants placement. Histology and histomorphometry were performed on 5-μm sections of undecalcified bone biopsies.Results
The MSFE procedure with BCP showed uneventful healing in all cases. All dental implants appeared to be well osseointegrated after 3 months. Radiological evaluation showed less than 1 mm tissue height loss from MSFE to the 5-year follow-up examination. No signs of inflammation were detected on histological examination. Newly formed mineralized tissue was found cranially from the native bone. The BCP particles were surrounded by connective tissue, osteoid islands, and newly formed bone. Mineralized bone tissue was in intimate contact with the BCP particles. After 12 months, remnants of BCP were still present. The newly formed bone had a trabecular structure. Bone maturation was demonstrated by the presence of lamellar bone. Histomorphometric analysis showed at 9 and 12 months respectively an average vital bone volume/total volume of 35.2 and 28.2%, bone surface/total volume of 4.2 mm2/mm3 and 8.3 mm2/mm3, trabecular thickness of 224.7 and 66.7 μm, osteoid volume/bone volume of 8.8 and 3.4%, osteoid surface/bone surface (OS/BS) of 42.4 and 8.2%, and osteoid thickness of 93.9 and 13.6 μm.Conclusions
MFSE with BCP resulted in new bone formation within the augmented sinus floor and allowed the osseointegration of dental implants in both groups. From a histological and histomorphometric perspective, a 9-month healing time for this type of BCP may be the optimal time for placement of dental implants.
- Biphasic calcium phosphate
- Bone substitute
- Sinus augmentation
- Sinus floor elevation