Tipping the balance: toward rational combination therapies to overcome venetoclax resistance in mantle cell lymphoma

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive, but incurable B-cell lymphoma, is genetically characterized by the t(11;14) translocation, resulting in the overexpression of Cyclin D1. In addition, deregulation of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family proteins BCL-2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL), and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) is highly common in MCL. This renders these BCL-2 family members attractive targets for therapy; indeed, the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199), which already received FDA approval for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), shows promising results in early clinical trials for MCL. However, a significant subset of patients show primary resistance or will develop resistance upon prolonged treatment. Here, we describe the underlying mechanisms of venetoclax resistance in MCL, such as upregulation of BCL-XL or MCL-1, and the recent (clinical) progress in the development of inhibitors for these BCL-2 family members, followed by the transcriptional and (post-)translational (dys)regulation of the BCL-2 family proteins, including the role of the lymphoid organ microenvironment. Based upon these insights, we discuss how rational combinations of venetoclax with other therapies can be exploited to prevent or overcome venetoclax resistance and improve MCL patient outcome.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2165-2176
Number of pages12
Issue number9
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022

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