Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) Expression in Contracted Capsules Compared to Uncontracted Capsules

Y. Bachour, M. J. P. F. Ritt, R. Heijmans, F. B. Niessen, S. P. Verweij

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: The etiology of capsular contracture after surgical implantation of breast implants remains unclear, but an important role is seen for the immune system. Toll-like receptors are immune receptors recognizing both pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns. The former are present on bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (bacteria earlier associated with capsular contracture), and the latter are released after (mechanical) stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of TLRs 1–10 in relation to capsular contracture. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive breast capsules were collected during implant removal or replacement. The extent of capsular contracture was scored according to the Baker score. A sample specimen (0.5 cm3) was obtained from all tissues. cDNA was synthesized from isolated mRNA from the collected specimens. PCR analyses were conducted to test for cDNA presence and to quantify concentration. TLR1–10 expression was measured for each of the Baker scores separately and compared to all Baker scores. Results: Expression of all TLRs in all Baker scores was seen. TLR2 and TLR6 were more often present in contracted samples (Baker 3 or 4) compared to uncontracted samples (Baker 1 or 2) [Baker 2 vs. 3 (p = 0.034) and Baker 2 vs. 3 (p = 0.003), respectively]. None of the TLRs displayed a significantly higher expression in contracted capsules compared to uncontracted capsules. Conclusion: This study shows that TLR2 and TLR6 are more often expressed in contracted capsules compared to non-contracted capsules however not in higher concentrations. Level of Evidence III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)910-917
JournalAesthetic plastic surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2019

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