Topoisomerase IIα gene expression in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

E. Klumper, G. Giaccone, R. Pieters, G. Broekema, J. Van Ark-Otte, E. R. Van Wering, G. J.L. Kaspers, A. J.P. Veerman

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Abstract

Previously, we showed that in vitro resistance to daunorubicin (DNR) at initial diagnosis was related to a poor long-term clinical outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and that cells of relapsed ALL were in vitro more resistant to DNR than cells of untreated ALL. Topoisomerase II (Topo II) is an intracellular target for anthracyclines and epipodophyllotoxins. Decreased levels and/or activity of Topo II have been associated with multidrug resistance in cell lines. We investigated Topo IIα gene expression in fresh leukemic samples from 19 children with untreated and 14 children with relapsed ALL using a sensitive RNase protection assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the Topo II inhibitors DNR and teniposide (VM26) was measured using the MTT assay, and the cell cycle distribution of leukemic samples was analyzed by DNA flow cytometry. Results showed that (1) relapsed ALL samples were more resistant to DNR, but not to VM26 compared to untreated samples; (2) large interpatient variations existed in both Topo IIα gene expression and in vitro cytotoxicity results; (3) Topo IIα gene expression was detectable in 29/33 childhood ALL samples with a median expression of 5% the level of a relatively chemosensitive human small cell lung cancer cell line; (4) Topo IIα gene expression did not differ between untreated and relapsed ALL; (5) Topo IIα gene expression was positively correlated with the percentage of ALL cells in S- and G2M-phase, but not with the in vitro cytotoxicity of the drugs tested. In conclusion, resistance to DNR in childhood ALL can not be explained by decreased levels of Topo IIα gene expression, but additional Topo II activity studies in fresh leukemia samples may need further exploration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1653-1660
Number of pages8
JournalLeukemia
Volume9
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1995

Keywords

  • Anthracyclines
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Drug resistance
  • Epipodophyllotoxins
  • Leukemia
  • Topoisomerase

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