Toward planning target volume margin reduction for the prostate using intrafraction motion correction with online kV imaging and automatic detection of implanted gold seeds

Tezontl Rosario, Lineke van der Weide, Marjan Admiraal, Maartje Piet, Ben Slotman, Johan Cuijpers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The imaging application Auto Beam Hold (ABH) allows for the online analysis of 2-dimensional kV images acquired during treatment. ABH can automatically detect fiducial markers and initiate a beam interrupt. In this study, we investigate the practical use and results of this intrafraction monitoring tool for patients with prostate cancer who have implanted gold seeds treated with a RapidArc technique. Methods and materials: A total of 105 patients were included. For setup, the seeds were lined up using 2 orthogonal 2-dimensional kV images. After the setup procedure, ABH was applied at an interval of 3 seconds. The software requires a maximum-allowed deviation to be defined for each seed, which is referred to as a deviation limit (DL). Online, the ABH application evaluates the position of the seeds and indicates for each seed whether or not it exceeds the DL. Patients were divided in 3 groups. For the first group ABH was used with the DL at 6 mm, which corresponds to the planning target volume (PTV) margin. For the second group, the DL was set at 5 mm with an unchanged PTV margin of 6 mm. For the third group, the PTV margin was reduced to 5 mm with a DL of 5 mm. Offline, we performed an analysis of the number of beam stops and resulting re-setups. Results: ABH initiated a beam interrupt 223 times (13%) during a total of 1736 sessions. By decreasing the DL from 6 mm to 5 mm, the amount of workload for re-setups increased from 6% (group 1) to 14% (groups 2 and 3). Re-setup, 3-dimensional shifts larger than the PTV margin were found in 44%, 35%, and 45% for groups 1,2, and 3, respectively. Conclusions: Intrafraction imaging of prostate position during treatment using automatic detection of implanted gold seeds was successfully implemented. PTV margins were safely reduced from 6mm to 5mm without a substantial increase in workload.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-428
Number of pages7
JournalPractical radiation oncology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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