BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the evolution of BMI and skeletal muscle index (SMI) measurements during advanced cancer and their relationships with disease progression (PD) is relevant to improve the timing of interventions that may improve cachexia-associated outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated BMI and SMI trajectories and their associations with PD in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients during consecutive palliative systemic regimens. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of the primary CAIRO3 trial, we included 533 mCRC patients with BMI measurements repeated every 3 wk and 95 randomly selected patients with SMI measurements repeated every 9 wk. We studied 2 periods: p1, during first-line maintenance capecitabine + bevacizumab or observation until the first progression of disease (PD1); and p2, during capecitabine + oxaliplatin + bevacizumab or another reintroduction treatment from PD1 until the second progression of disease (PD2). BMI and SMI trajectories were modeled separately throughout both periods, and joint longitudinal-survival modeling was used to investigate the relationships between slopes in BMI and SMI with PD at 9 and 3 wk pre-PD. A multivariate longitudinal joint model was used to investigate the association between the BMI trajectory and PD at time of PD, independent of SMI. RESULTS: During p1, the slopes in BMI and SMI were associated with early PD1 [HRs for 9-wk BMI: 1.54 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.76); 9-wk SMI: 1.38 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.89), NS; 3-wk BMI: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.48, 1.99); 3-wk SMI: 2.65 (95% CI: 1.97, 3.32)]. During p2, only the slope in SMI was related to PD2 [9-wk BMI: 1.09 (95%: CI: 0.73, 1.45), NS; 9-wk SMI: 1.64 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.04); 3-wk BMI: 1.17 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.57); 3-wk SMI: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.53)]. In models mutually adjusting for BMI and SMI, SMI was associated with PD in p1 [p1 ( n = 95), HR BMI: 1.32 (95% CI: 0.74, 2.39), NS; p1, HR SMI: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.14); p2 ( n = 50), BMI: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.75), NS; p2, HR SMI: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.05), NS]. CONCLUSIONS: In mCRC patients during palliative systemic treatment, SMI losses, irrespective of BMI losses, may be a marker for the early initiation of cachexia interventions.