Transgender patients and the role of the coagulation clinician

Jean M. Connors, Saskia Middeldorp

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The medical care of transgender patients relies on the use of sex hormones to develop and maintain the physical characteristics consistent with gender identity as the first step in transitioning. Hormonal therapy is usually continued indefinitely, even following gender-affirming surgeries. The use of hormonal treatments is associated with a multitude of positive effects as well as complications and side effects. The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major concern. Transgender patients are often referred to coagulation specialists for advice regarding an individual patient's risk for VTE, especially if there is a personal or family history of VTE. Coagulation specialists need to be familiar with endocrine therapy including the goals of treatment and the VTE risks associated with currently used hormone regimens. We will review common referral questions and the available data and their limitations for the use of hormonal therapy in transgender patients focusing on the risk of VTE.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1790-1797
JournalJournal of thrombosis and haemostasis
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019

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