Importance: During the past decades, improvements in the prevention and management of myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism have led to a decline in cardiovascular mortality in the general population. However, it is unknown whether patients receiving dialysis have also benefited from these improvements. Objective: To assess the mortality rates for myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism in a large cohort of European patients receiving dialysis compared with the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, adult patients who started dialysis between 1998 and 2015 from 11 European countries providing data to the European Renal Association Registry were and followed up for 3 years. Data were analyzed from September 2020 to February 2022. Exposures: Start of dialysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The age- and sex-standardized mortality rate ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated by dividing the mortality rates in patients receiving dialysis by the mortality rates in the general population for 3 equal periods (1998-2003, 2004-2009, and 2010-2015). Results: In total, 220467 patients receiving dialysis were included in the study. Their median (IQR) age was 68.2 (56.5-76.4) years, and 82068 patients (37.2%) were female. During follow-up, 83912 patients died, of whom 7662 (9.1%) died because of myocardial infarction, 5030 (6.0%) died because of stroke, and 435 (0.5%) died because of pulmonary embolism. Between the periods 1998 to 2003 and 2010 to 2015, the SMR of myocardial infarction decreased from 8.1 (95% CI, 7.8-8.3) to 6.8 (95% CI, 6.5-7.1), the SMR of stroke decreased from 7.3 (95% CI, 7.0-7.6) to 5.8 (95% CI, 5.5-6.2), and the SMR of pulmonary embolism decreased from 8.7 (95% CI, 7.6-10.1) to 5.5 (95% CI, 4.5-6.6). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients receiving dialysis, mortality rates for myocardial infarction, stroke, and pulmonary embolism decreased more over time than in the general population.