Ultralow temperature cryoablation using near-critical nitrogen for cavotricuspid isthmus-ablation, first-in-human results

Martijn N. Klaver, Tom J. R. de Potter, Konstantinos Iliodromitis, Alexander Babkin, David Cabrita, Davide Fabbricatore, Lucas V. A. Boersma

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Cryoablation has evolved as a safe alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of several supraventricular arrhythmias and has potential advantages, yet is limited by the properties of the cryogen used. We investigated a novel ultralow temperature cryoablation (ULTC) system using nitrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point as a freezing source, achieving temperatures as low as -196 degrees Celsius in a long linear catheter with a continuous energy release. Initial safety, procedural and efficacy outcomes of ULTC are described in patients undergoing cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation. Methods and Results: The Cryocure studies (NCT02355106, NCT02839304) are prospective, single-arm, multi-center, first-in-human clinical studies in 17 patients with atrial flutter (AFL) and 13 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). A total of 30 patients, mean age 65 ± 8 years old and 67% male, were enrolled and underwent ablation of the CTI. Acute success, defined as the confirmation of stable bidirectional conduction block across the CTI, was achieved in all 30 patients. After 12 months of follow-up, 14 out of 17 AFL patients remained free from any AFL. One (3.3%) procedure-related but not device-related serious adverse event was reported, involving transient inferolateral ST-elevation associated with temporary AV conduction block. Conclusion: In this first-in-human clinical study the safety and performance results demonstrate the capabilities of ultralow temperature near-critical nitrogen as an effective energy source for CTI ablation. Ongoing, larger, studies should confirm our findings and evaluate the capabilities to create linear and focal transmural lesions in other arrhythmias.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2025-2032
Number of pages8
Issue number8
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • cavotricuspid isthmus
  • cryoablation
  • first-in-human
  • near-critical nitrogen
  • ultralow temperature

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