Update of the fracture risk prediction tool FRAX: a systematic review of potential cohorts and analysis plan

L. Vandenput, H. Johansson, E. V. McCloskey, E. Liu, K. E. Åkesson, F. A. Anderson, R. Azagra, C. L. Bager, C. Beaudart, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, E. Biver, O. Bruyère, J. A. Cauley, J. R. Center, R. Chapurlat, C. Christiansen, C. Cooper, C. J. Crandall, S. R. Cummings, J. A. P. da SilvaB. Dawson-Hughes, A. Diez-Perez, A. B. Dufour, J. A. Eisman, P. J. M. Elders, S. Ferrari, Y. Fujita, S. Fujiwara, C. C. Glüer, I. Goldshtein, D. Goltzman, V. Gudnason, J. Hall, D. Hans, M. Hoff, R. J. Hollick, M. Huisman, M. Iki, S. Ish-Shalom, G. Jones, M. K. Karlsson, S. Khosla, D. P. Kiel, W. P. Koh, F. Koromani, M. A. Kotowicz, H. Kröger, T. Kwok, O. Lamy, A. Langhammer, B. Larijani, K. Lippuner, D. Mellström, T. Merlijn, A. Nordström, P. Nordström, T. W. O’Neill, B. Obermayer-Pietsch, C. Ohlsson, E. S. Orwoll, J. A. Pasco, F. Rivadeneira, B. Schei, A. M. Schott, E. J. Shiroma, K. Siggeirsdottir, E. M. Simonsick, E. Sornay-Rendu, R. Sund, K. M. A. Swart, P. Szulc, J. Tamaki, D. J. Torgerson, N. M. van Schoor, T. P. van Staa, J. Vila, N. J. Wareham, N. C. Wright, N. Yoshimura, M. C. Zillikens, M. Zwart, N. C. Harvey, M. Lorentzon, W. D. Leslie, J. A. Kanis

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Summary: We describe the collection of cohorts together with the analysis plan for an update of the fracture risk prediction tool FRAX with respect to current and novel risk factors. The resource comprises 2,138,428 participants with a follow-up of approximately 20 million person-years and 116,117 documented incident major osteoporotic fractures. Introduction: The availability of the fracture risk assessment tool FRAX® has substantially enhanced the targeting of treatment to those at high risk of fracture with FRAX now incorporated into more than 100 clinical osteoporosis guidelines worldwide. The aim of this study is to determine whether the current algorithms can be further optimised with respect to current and novel risk factors. Methods: A computerised literature search was performed in PubMed from inception until May 17, 2019, to identify eligible cohorts for updating the FRAX coefficients. Additionally, we searched the abstracts of conference proceedings of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, European Calcified Tissue Society and World Congress of Osteoporosis. Prospective cohort studies with data on baseline clinical risk factors and incident fractures were eligible. Results: Of the 836 records retrieved, 53 were selected for full-text assessment after screening on title and abstract. Twelve cohorts were deemed eligible and of these, 4 novel cohorts were identified. These cohorts, together with 60 previously identified cohorts, will provide the resource for constructing an updated version of FRAX comprising 2,138,428 participants with a follow-up of approximately 20 million person-years and 116,117 documented incident major osteoporotic fractures. For each known and candidate risk factor, multivariate hazard functions for hip fracture, major osteoporotic fracture and death will be tested using extended Poisson regression. Sex- and/or ethnicity-specific differences in the weights of the risk factors will be investigated. After meta-analyses of the cohort-specific beta coefficients for each risk factor, models comprising 10-year probability of hip and major osteoporotic fracture, with or without femoral neck bone mineral density, will be computed. Conclusions: These assembled cohorts and described models will provide the framework for an updated FRAX tool enabling enhanced assessment of fracture risk (PROSPERO (CRD42021227266)).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2103-2136
Number of pages34
JournalOsteoporosis international
Issue number10
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Epidemiology
  • FRAX
  • Fracture probability
  • Hip fracture
  • Major osteoporotic fracture
  • Risk assessment

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