72 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Objective: We examine the use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze components in human urine. Study Design/Methods and Meterials: Targeted urine components include urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Results: Urea concentration in urine is sufficiently high that normal Raman spectroscopy may be used for its analysis. All other components are in low concentrations requiring the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic methods (SERS). Conclusion: Both normal Raman and SERS approaches have been investigated for total urine-nitrogen determination, urine urea-nitrogen determination, and for the urea/ creatinine excretion ratio.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-334
Number of pages5
JournalLasers in surgery and medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2001


  • Creatinine
  • Gold colloid
  • Portable spectrometer
  • Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
  • Uric acid

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