Vaginal Canal Reconstruction in Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty with Flaps, Peritoneum, or Skin Grafts: Where Is the Evidence?

Ara A. Salibian, Loren S. Schechter, William M. Kuzon, Mark-Bram Bouman, Wouter B. van der Sluis, Lee C. Zhao, Rachel Bluebond-Langner

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BACKGROUND: To optimize neovaginal dimensions, several modifications of the traditional penile inversion vaginoplasty are described. Options for neovaginal lining include skin grafts, scrotal flaps, urethral flaps, and peritoneum. Implications of these techniques on outcomes remain limited. METHODS: A systematic review of recent literature was performed to assess evidence on various vaginal lining options as adjunct techniques in penile inversion vaginoplasty. Study characteristics, neovaginal depth, donor-site morbidity, lubrication, and complications were analyzed in conjunction with expert opinion. RESULTS: Eight case series and one cohort study representing 1622 patients used additional skin grafts when performing penile inversion vaginoplasty. Neovaginal stenosis ranged from 1.2 to 12 percent, and neovaginal necrosis ranged from 0 to 22.8 percent. Patient satisfaction with lubrication was low in select studies. Three studies used scrotal flaps to line the posterior vaginal canal. Average neovaginal depth was 12 cm in one study, and neovaginal stenosis ranged from 0 to 6.3 percent. In one study of 24 patients, urethral flaps were used to line the neovagina. Neovaginal depth was 11 cm and complication rates were comparable to other series. Two studies used robotically assisted peritoneal flaps with or without skin grafts in 49 patients. Average neovaginal depth was approximately 14 cm, and complication rates were low. CONCLUSIONS: Skin grafts, scrotal flaps, urethral flaps, and peritoneal flaps may be used to augment neovaginal canal dimensions with minimal donor-site morbidity. Further direct comparative data on complications, neovaginal depth, and lubrication are needed to assess indications in addition to advantages and disadvantages of the various lining options.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)634e-643e
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

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