Validity and reliability of a wearable-controlled serious game and goniometer for telemonitoring of wrist fracture rehabilitation

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Purpose: To determine the validity of wrist range of motion (ROM) measurements by the wearable-controlled ReValidate! wrist-rehabilitation game, which simultaneously acts as a digital goniometer. Furthermore, to establish the reliability of the game by contrasting ROM measurements to those found by medical experts using a universal goniometer. Methods: As the universal goniometer is considered the reference standard, inter-rater reliability between surgeons was first determined. Internal validity of the game ROM measurements was determined in a test–retest setting with healthy volunteers. The reliability of the game was tested in 34 patients with a restricted range of motion, in whom the ROM was measured by experts as well as digitally. Intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined and outcomes were analyzed using Bland–Altman plots. Results: Inter-rater reliability between experts using a universal goniometer was poor, with ICCs of 0.002, 0.160 and 0.520. Internal validity testing of the game found ICCs of − 0.693, 0.376 and 0.863, thus ranging from poor to good. Reliability testing of the game compared to medical expert measurements, found that mean differences were small for the flexion–extension arc and the radial deviation-ulnar deviation arc. Conclusion: The ReValidate! game is a reliable home-monitoring device digitally measuring ROM in the wrist. Interestingly, the test–retest reliability of the serious game was found to be considerably higher than the inter-rater reliability of the reference standard, being healthcare professionals using a universal goniometer. Trial registration number: (internal hospital registration only) MEC-AMC W17_003 #17.015.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Trauma
Early online date2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2021


  • Distal radius fracture
  • Goniometer
  • Range of motion
  • Rehabilitation
  • Serious game
  • Telemonitoring

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