Disorders that specifically affect central and peripheral vision constitute invaluable models to study how the human brain adapts to visual deafferentation. We explored cortical changes after the loss of central or peripheral vision. Cortical thickness (CoTks) and resting-state cortical entropy (rs-CoEn), as a surrogate for neural and synaptic complexity, were extracted in 12 Stargardt macular dystrophy, 12 retinitis pigmentosa (tunnel vision stage), and 14 normally sighted subjects. When compared to controls, both groups with visual loss exhibited decreased CoTks in dorsal area V3d. Peripheral visual field loss also showed a specific CoTks decrease in early visual cortex and ventral area V4, while central visual field loss in dorsal area V3A. Only central visual field loss exhibited increased CoEn in LO-2 area and FG1. Current results revealed biomarkers of brain plasticity within the dorsal and the ventral visual streams following central and peripheral visual field defects.