The SNAREs Vti1a/1b are implicated in regulated secretion, but their role relative to canonical exocytic SNAREs remains elusive. Here, we show that synaptic vesicle and dense-core vesicle (DCV) secretion is indeed severely impaired in Vti1a/b-deficient neurons. The synaptic levels of proteins that mediate secretion were reduced, down to 50% for the exocytic SNARE SNAP25. The delivery of SNAP25 and DCV-cargo into axons was decreased and these molecules accumulated in the Golgi. These defects were rescued by either Vti1a or Vti1b expression. Distended Golgi cisternae and clear vacuoles were observed in Vti1a/b-deficient neurons. The normal non-homogeneous distribution of DCV-cargo inside the Golgi was lost. Cargo trafficking out of, but not into the Golgi, was impaired. Finally, retrograde Cholera Toxin trafficking, but not Sortilin/Sorcs1 distribution, was compromised. We conclude that Vti1a/b support regulated secretion by sorting secretory cargo and synaptic secretion machinery components at the Golgi.