Who uses what food retailers? A cluster analysis of food retail usage in the Netherlands

Jody C. Hoenink, Milou Eisink, Jean Adams, Maria G. M. Pinho, Joreintje D. Mackenbach

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to describe how individuals use different food retailers and how food retail usage varies according to socio-demographic and diet-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch adults (N = 1784) was used. Results from the Two-step cluster analysis indicated that there were five clusters of food retail users. Use of discount supermarkets, organic supermarkets, fast-food outlets, and restaurants contributed to clustering, but use of regular supermarkets, local food shops and whether food retailers were close to home or further from home did not. The clusters included mixed food outlet users, discount supermarket and restaurant users, fast-food and restaurant users, predominant discount supermarket users and supermarkets, fast-food and restaurant users. Participants in each cluster had their own characteristics especially in terms of socio-economic position and diet quality. Future studies need to consider further how food retail selection links physical exposure to the food environment and diet.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103009
JournalHealth and Place
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023


  • Dietary behaviors
  • Exposure to food outlets
  • Food environment
  • Food supply
  • Residential environment

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