Working definitions, subjective and objective assessments and experimental paradigms in a study exploring social withdrawal in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease

Nic J.A. van der Wee, Amy C. Bilderbeck, Maria Cabello, Jose L. Ayuso-Mateos, Ilya M.J. Saris, Erik J. Giltay, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx, Celso Arango, Anke Post, Stefano Porcelli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Social withdrawal is one of the first and common signs of early social dysfunction in a number of important neuropsychiatric disorders, likely because of the enormous amount and complexity of brain processes required to initiate and maintain social relationships (Adolphs, 2009). The Psychiatric Ratings using Intermediate Stratified Markers (PRISM) project focusses on the shared and unique neurobiological basis of social withdrawal in schizophrenia, Alzheimer and depression. In this paper, we discuss the working definition of social withdrawal for this study and the selection of objective and subjective rating scales to assess social withdrawal chosen or adapted for this project. We also discuss the MRI and EEG paradigms selected to study the systems and neural circuitry thought to underlie social functioning and more particularly to be involved in social withdrawal in humans, such as the social perception and the social affiliation networks. A number of behavioral paradigms were selected to assess complementary aspects of social cognition. Also, a digital phenotyping method (a smartphone application) was chosen to obtain real-life data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-46
Number of pages9
JournalNeuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
Issue number97
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • Digital phenotyping
  • EEG
  • MRI
  • Neurobiological and behavioral paradigms in schizophrenia, Alzheimer and depression
  • Passive remote monitoring
  • Social withdrawal
  • Subjective and objective assessments

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