A cross sectional study on the different domains of frailty for independent living older adults

Didi Verver, Hanneke Merten, Carolien de Blok, Cordula Wagner

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15 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: With the ageing population, there is a stronger focus on supporting older people to live independently as long as possible. One of the important factors to take into consideration for independent living older adults is frailty. This manuscript aims to provide insight into the relation between the different domains of frailty (physical, social and psychological or a combination), health outcomes and wellbeing aspects for independent living older adults. METHODS: This cross sectional community-based study included independent living older adults of 65 years and over who are member of a welfare organisation. The questionnaire contained items on background characteristics, health, quality of life, frailty (Tilburg Frailty Indicator), activities and loneliness. A multivariate analysis, one Way ANOVA's and chi-square tests with post-hoc analyses were used to identify significant differences between the following outcomes: Age, gender, marital status, living situation, income, health perception, number of conditions, activities of daily living, home care and informal care, Quality of life, loneliness, going outside, meeting people and the different domains of frailty. RESULTS: 1768 (35.1%) participants completed the questionnaire. 68.9% of the respondents was frail on one or multiple domains and 51.6% of the respondents was frail based on the total score on the TFI. Social frailty (18.4%) was most often present followed by 10.3% for frailty on all three domains of the TFI. All variables tested, except for income, showed significant differences between the different domains of frailty. CONCLUSION: Distinguishing the different domains of frailty provides information about the older adult's needs which is valuable for policymakers and care providers, to anticipate to the increasing number of independent living older adults and deliver them tailored care and support to contribute to their independent living situation and wellbeing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number61
JournalBMC geriatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • Ageing in place
  • Frailty
  • Independent living
  • Older adults
  • Policy

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