A parent-report gender identity questionnaire for children: A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis

Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Madeleine Wallien, Laurel L. Johnson, Allison F.H. Owen-Anderson, Susan J. Bradley, Kenneth J. Zucker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)


A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls, bi the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)397-405
Number of pages9
JournalClinical child psychology and psychiatry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2006


  • DSM-IV
  • Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children
  • Gender identity disorder
  • Gender role

Cite this