A Parent-Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children: Psychometric Properties of an Italian Version

Angela M. Caldarera, Davide Marengo, Eva Gerino, Piera Brustia, Luca Rollè, Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis

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This article presents an Italian version of the Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) (Cohen-Kettenis et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2004), a parent-report questionnaire covering a range of gender characteristics of children. We developed the GIQC-Italian version with the translation/back translation method and administered it, with a sociodemographic data sheet, to the parents of 1148 children aged 3–12 years (non-clinical sample). After obtaining descriptive data for each item, in line with Johnson et al. (2004), we examined dimensionality through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Considering the results and that our sample was entirely non-clinical, we developed a new scoring procedure. The EFA on the new scores generated three scales: (1) a Female-Typical Behavior Scale, (2) a Male-Typical Behavior Scale, and (3) a Cross-Gender Scale. Additional EFA and confirmatory factor analyses (WLSMV estimator by using a 80/20 random-split-sample analytical approach) confirmed the three-factor solution as the best fitting dimensional structure for the revised GIQC. The Cronbach’s α of the scales showed a satisfactory internal consistency. The frequency distribution of the scales scores showed it is possible to find atypical gender behavior and preferences in non-clinical samples. Independent samples t test confirmed a significant difference between boys’ and girls’ scores. Older children reported scores indicating less gender non-conforming characteristics than younger, except for the Female-Typical Behavior Scale in the girls’ subsample. Results are discussed in the light of the existing literature about gender development. Our findings suggest that the GIQC-Italian version could be a useful tool for studying gender development in the Italian context.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1603-1615
Number of pages13
JournalArchives of sexual behavior
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2019


  • Gender behavior
  • Gender identity
  • Gender role
  • Italian children

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