Objectives: The Pediatric Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (PENTEC) pulmonary task force reviewed dosimetric and clinical factors associated with radiation therapy (RT)–associated pulmonary toxicity in children. Methods: Comprehensive search of PubMed (1965-2020) was conducted to assess available evidence and predictive models of RT-induced lung injury in pediatric cancer patients (<21 years old). Lung dose for radiation pneumonitis (RP) was obtained from dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. RP grade was obtained from standard criteria. Clinical pulmonary outcomes were evaluated using pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical assessment, and questionnaires. Results: More than 2,400 abstracts were identified; 460 articles had detailed treatment and toxicity data; and 11 articles with both detailed DVH and toxicity data were formally reviewed. Pooled cohorts treated during 1999 to 2016 included 277 and 507 patients age 0.04 to 22.7 years who were evaluable for acute and late RP analysis, respectively. After partial lung RT, there were 0.4% acute and 2.8% late grade 2, 0.4% acute and 0.8% late grade 3, and no grade 4 to 5 RP. RP risk after partial thoracic RT with mean lung dose (MLD) <14 Gy and total lung V20Gy <30% is low. Clinical and self-reported pulmonary outcomes data included 8,628 patients treated during 1970 to 2013, age 0 to 21.9 years. At a median 2.9- to 21.9-year follow-up, patients were often asymptomatic; abnormal PFTs were common and severity correlated with lung dose. At ≥10-year follow-up, multi-institutional studies suggested associations between total or ipsilateral lung doses >10 Gy and pulmonary complications and deaths. After whole lung irradiation (WLI), pulmonary toxicity is higher; no dose response relationship was identified. Bleomycin and other chemotherapeutics at current dose regimens do not contribute substantially to adverse pulmonary outcomes after partial lung irradiation but increase risk with WLI. Conclusions: After partial lung RT, acute pulmonary toxicity is uncommon; grade 2 to 3 RP incidences are <1%. Late toxicities, including subclinical/asymptomatic impaired pulmonary function, are more common (<4%). Incidence and severity appear to increase over time. Upon review of available literature, there appears to be low risk of pulmonary complications in children with MLD < 14 Gy and V20Gy <30% using standard fractionated RT to partial lung volumes. A lack of robust data limit guidance on lung dose/volume constraints, highlighting the need for additional work to define factors associated with RT-induced lung injury.
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|Early online date||2022|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 2022|