Alirocumab efficacy in patients with double heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

Merel L. Hartgers, Joep C. Defesche, Gisle Langslet, Paul N. Hopkins, John J. P. Kastelein, Marie T. Baccara-Dinet, Werner Seiz, Sara Hamon, Poulabi Banerjee, Claudia Stefanutti

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Mutations in the genes for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 have been reported to cause heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The objective is to examine the influence of double heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous mutations underlying FH on the efficacy of alirocumab. Patients from 6 alirocumab trials with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and FH diagnosis were sequenced for mutations in the LDLR, apolipoprotein B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, LDLR adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1), and signal-transducing adaptor protein 1 genes. The efficacy of alirocumab was examined in patients who had double heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous mutations. Of 1191 patients sequenced, 20 patients were double heterozygotes (n = 7), compound heterozygotes (n = 10), or homozygotes (n = 3). Mean baseline LDL-C levels were similar between patients treated with alirocumab (n = 11; 198 mg/dL) vs placebo (n = 9; 189 mg/dL). All patients treated with alirocumab 75/150 or 150 mg every 2 weeks had an LDL-C reduction of ≥15% at either week 12 or 24. At week 12, 1 patient had an increase of 7.1% in LDL-C, whereas in others, LDL-C was reduced by 21.7% to 63.9% (corresponding to 39-114 mg/dL absolute reduction from baseline). At week 24, LDL-C was reduced in all patients by 8.8% to 65.1% (10-165 mg/dL absolute reduction from baseline). Alirocumab was generally well tolerated in the 6 trials. Clinically meaningful LDL-C-lowering activity was observed in patients receiving alirocumab who were double heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous for genes that are causative for FH
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)390-396.e8
JournalJournal of clinical lipidology
Issue number2
Early online date2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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