Angiogenesis in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Janus-Faced Player?

Lynn Willems, Kondababu Kurakula, Janne Verhaegen, Frederikus A. Klok, Marion Delcroix, Marie-José Goumans, Rozenn Quarck

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of organized thrombi that obstruct pulmonary arteries, ultimately leading to right heart failure and death. Among others, impaired angiogenesis and inflammatory thrombosis have been shown to contribute to the progression of CTEPH. In this review, we summarize the 2-faced nature of angiogenesis in both thrombus formation and resolution in the context of CTEPH and highlight the dual role of angiogenesis and neovascularization in resolving venous thrombi. Furthermore, we discuss relevant in vitro and in vivo models that support the benefits or drawbacks of angiogenesis in CTEPH progression. We discuss the key pathways involved in modulating angiogenesis, particularly the underexplored role of TGFβ (transforming growth factor-beta) signaling in driving fibrosis as an integral element of CTEPH pathogenesis. We finally explore innovative treatment strategies that target angiogenic pathways. These strategies have the potential to pioneer preventive, inventive, or alternative therapeutic options for patients with CTEPH who may not qualify for surgical interventions. Moreover, they could be used synergistically with established treatments such as pulmonary endarterectomy or balloon pulmonary angioplasty. In summary, this review emphasizes the crucial role of angiogenesis in the development of in fibrothrombotic tissue, a major pathological characteristic of CTEPH.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)794-806
Number of pages13
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • angiogenesis
  • animal models
  • hypertension, pulmonary
  • pulmonary embolism
  • thrombosis
  • transforming growth factor-beta

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