Artificial Sporulation Induction (ASI) by kinA Overexpression Affects the Proteomes and Properties of Bacillus subtilis Spores

Z. Tu, W.R. Abhyankar, B.N. Swarge, N. van der Wel, G. Kramer, S. Brul, L.J. de Koning

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To facilitate more accurate spore proteomic analysis, the current study focuses on inducing homogeneous sporulation by overexpressing kinA and assesses the effect of synchronized sporulation initiation on spore resistance, structures, the germination behavior at single-spore level and the proteome. The results indicate that, in our set up, the sporulation by overexpressing kinA can generate a spore yield of 70% within 8 h. The procedure increases spore wet heat resistance and thickness of the spore coat and cortex layers, whilst delaying the time to spore phase-darkening and burst after addition of germinant. The proteome analysis reveals that the upregulated proteins in the kinA induced spores, compared to spores without kinA induction, as well as the 'wildtype' spores, are mostly involved in spore formation. The downregulated proteins mostly belong to the categories of coping with stress, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as the regulation of sporulation. Thus, while kinA overexpression enhances synchronicity in sporulation initiation, it also has profound effects on the central equilibrium of spore formation and spore germination, through modulation of the spore molecular composition and stress resistance physiology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4315
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2020


  • B. subtilis
  • kinA induction
  • spore proteomics
  • sporulation homogeneity

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