Assessment of the haemodynamic response to exercise by means of electrical impedance cardiography: method, validation and clinical applications

H J Bogaard, H H Woltjer, P E Postmus, P M de Vries

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past three decades, the technique of electrical impedance cardiography (EIC) has developed into a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of stroke volume. Recent developments have made EIC suitable for routine use during exercise testing, too. However, standardization of electrode positioning, stroke volume calculation, and data processing is lacking. In our opinion the most reliable options are, respectively, a modified semicircular electrode array, the Kubicek equation including a haematocrit-based resistivity value, and computerized signal averaging. Although EIC derived stroke volume calculation is based on several debated assumptions, numerous validation studies have shown good accuracy and reproducibility, also during exercise. Addition of EIC measurements during standard clinical exercise testing might be of benefit in occupational medicine, cardiology and pulmonary medicine. Although in the latter setting no validation studies have been performed, major methodological problems are not expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-105
Number of pages11
JournalPhysiological measurement
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 1997


  • Cardiac Output
  • Cardiography, Impedance/methods
  • Cardiology
  • Exercise Test/methods
  • Exercise/physiology
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Occupational Medicine
  • Pulmonary Medicine
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stroke Volume

Cite this